Thyroid hormone disorders: causes and management

The endocrine system is one of the important internal organs of the human body. The body’s proper functioning and metabolic rate are affected by the hormones associated with this system.

As the thyroid gland is the most important organ of the endocrine system, it has a direct impact on the metabolism, growth and development of the body.

Thyroid in women: Thyroid disorders are more common in women. Common thyroid disorders affecting women fall into two categories: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism:

Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. It slowly alters most of the body’s functions, including metabolism.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism: Symptoms of hypothyroidism develop slowly. It may take years to identify this. Important symptoms:



 Hypersensitivity to cold

 Dry skin

 Weight gain

 Swollen face

 Hoarse voice

Hyperthyroidism: This problem is caused due to overproduction of thyroid hormones like T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) in the body due to excess thyroid secretion. Due to the increased secretion of these hormones, the metabolic rate of the body is accelerated. This increases the body’s need for nutrients and food. If not enough food is consumed, it can lead to weakness and weight loss.

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism can be prevented after recognizing the symptoms and confirming them based on studies. Symptoms for:

 Feeling hot and sweating profusely when others do not

 Weight loss

 Diarrhea or excessive bowel movements

 Shorter than normal or incomplete periods

 Rapid heartbeat

 Palpitation, tension

 Trembling of hands

Ways to Protect the Thyroid Gland

Low-sugar, low-fat diet – Eating a low-sugar diet is good for keeping the thyroid gland healthy. Processed foods such as cheese, fried snacks, cakes, biscuits, and instant foods should be avoided as they worsen the condition of hypothyroidism.

Limit some vegetables: Broccoli, cauliflower, sprouted grain, turnips should be included sparingly in the diet. Because the process of digesting these vegetables uses up the iodine required for normal thyroid function. This can inhibit thyroid secretion.

Healthy lifestyle: Stress is one of the most common causes of hypothyroidism. Stress has the potential to suppress thyroid hormone production. It is good to engage in activities like yoga, meditation or other physical/mental activity that helps reduce stress.

Maintaining body weight: Being overweight requires more thyroid hormone to maintain body functions. This can lead to hyperthyroidism. Similarly, low body weight requires less thyroid hormone. This can lead to hypothyroidism. Hence, maintaining a proper body weight is very important.

Checkups: It is recommended that a person get their thyroid levels checked at regular intervals. Especially if any of the symptoms mentioned above appear, tests are essential. Abnormalities can be detected by doing this. Necessary measures should be taken to prevent the situation from worsening.

Care is important: It is very important for pregnant women to consult a doctor in detail to plan a healthy pregnancy. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can cause many consequences including miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight of the baby and pregnancy induced hypertension. Therefore it is very important to maintain healthy thyroid hormone levels before conception.

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