A body against itself

Autoimmune disease is considered one of the diseases caused by our modern lifestyle. In this, our body’s immune system attacks our own body. Normally, our body’s immune system has the ability to distinguish between its own cells and foreign invaders. In its autoimmune disease, it loses this ability. Because of this, it considers our body as foreign, including joints, skin, and internal organs, and releases proteins called autoantibodies, which attack and damage healthy cells.

There are many types of autoimmune diseases. Type-1 diabetes is also an autoimmune disease. Type-1 diabetes can damage the pancreas.

Why does it occur? – The cause of autoimmune diseases has not yet been definitively identified. However, as the incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing now, researchers suspect that environmental factors including infections, chemicals, and foreign diet may be involved. Widely Known Autoimmune Diseases There are more than 80 autoimmune diseases. The most common of them are:

Type 1 Diabetes: Pancreas produces a hormone called insulin. Insulin helps control blood sugar levels. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Due to this, the blood sugar level increases dangerously. It can damage organs including the heart, kidneys, and eyes.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: In rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system attacks the joints. This attack causes redness, warmth, soreness and stiffness in the joints. Unlike arthritis, which usually affects older adults, rheumatoid arthritis can start in your 30s or earlier.

Psoriasis / Psoriatic Arthritis: Psoriasis causes skin cells to multiply too quickly. These extra cells form red patches. Psoriasis usually appears with silvery-white scales on fair skin and grey/purple or dark brown scales on darker skin. About 30 percent of people with psoriasis develop swelling, stiffness, and pain in the joints. This is called psoriatic arthritis.

Multiple Sclerosis – Multiple Sclerosis damages the myelin sheath, the protective covering that surrounds nerve cells in our central nervous system. This slows down the speed of signal transmission between our brain and spinal cord. Due to this, the speed of signals transmitted to other parts of the body is greatly affected. This damage can lead to problems like numbness, weakness, loss of balance and difficulty walking.

Myositis: Myositis is a type of muscle inflammation. In this the body’s immune system attacks and damages the muscle cells. If this is not observed, normal life will be paralyzed. It also has the potential to permanently destroy muscle cells. The disease is widespread all over the world. Actress Samantha is also affected.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) – In the 1800s doctors described lupus as a skin disease. But this disease actually affects many body organs including joints, kidneys, brain and heart. Common symptoms include joint pain, fatigue, and stiffness.

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: In Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, the thyroid reduces hormone production, leading to its deficiency. Symptoms include weight gain, fatigue, hair loss, and thyroid swelling.

Inflammatory bowel disease: Inflammatory bowel disease causes inflammation of the inner lining of the intestinal wall. In particular, Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. ‘Colitis’ affects the inner lining of the colon and rectum.

Sjögren’s syndrome – This disease affects the glands that lubricate the eyes and mouth. Its main symptoms are dry eyes and dry mouth. It can affect joints and skin.

Autoimmune vasculitis – in which the immune system attacks the blood vessels. The resulting inflammation constricts arteries and veins; Blood flow through them also decreases.

Symptoms of auto-immune diseases: Fatigue l Pain in muscles l Swelling, redness l Low fever l Lack of attention l Numbness in hands and feet, tingling

Hair loss Skin rashes: Apart from these, each disease has unique symptoms. In autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis, symptoms may come and go. The period of onset of symptoms is called progression of the disease and the period of disappearance of symptoms is called remission.

Tests: A doctor diagnoses these diseases through tests, symptoms, and physical examination. Doctors often use an antinuclear antibody test (ANA) when symptoms suggest an autoimmune disease. If the result of this test is positive, it is confirmed that one of these diseases may be present.

Treatments: There are no cures for autoimmune diseases. But treatments can help control an overactive immune response, reduce inflammation, and relieve pain. Treatments are also available to relieve symptoms such as pain, swelling, fatigue, and skin rashes. In general, anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressive drugs are used in treatment. Eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise can help you feel better and healthier.

Have any Question or Comment?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *